A silsesquioxane is an organosilicon compound with the chemical formula [RSiO3/2]n (R = H, alkyl, aryl or alkoxyl). Silsesquioxanes are colorless solids that adopt cage-like or polymeric structures with Si-O-Si linkages and tetrahedral Si vertices. Silsesquioxanes are members of polyoctahedral silsesquioxanes ("POSS"), which have attracted attention as precursors to ceramic materials and nanocomposites. Diverse substituents (R) can be attached to the Si centers. The molecules are unusual because they feature an inorganic silicate core and an organic exterior. The silica core confers rigidity and thermal stability.
Structure of silsesquioxane
Silsesquioxanes are known in molecular form with 6, 8, 10, and 12 Si vertices, as well as polymers. The cages are sometimes labeled T6 T8, T10, and T12, respectiively (T = tetrahedral vertex). The T8 cages, the most widely studied members, have the formula [RSiO3/2]8, or equivalently R8Si8O12. In all cases each Si center is bonded to three oxo groups, which in turn connect to other Si centers. The fourth group on Si is usually an alkyl, halide, hydride, alkoxide, etc. In the cubic clusters with Ohsymmetry the Si-O-Si angles are in the range 145–152°, being bowed out, allowing the Si centers to better adopt tetrahedral geometry. The O-Si-O angle are in the range: 107–112°, Si-O bond: 1.55–1.65 Å.
Synthesis of silsesquioxane
Silsesquioxanes are usually synthesized by hydrolysis of organotrichlorosilanes. An idealized synthesis is:
8 RSiCl3 + 12 H2O → [RSiO3/2]8 + 24 HCl
The formation of HCl negatively impacts the relative rates of hydrolysis and condensation of intermediate silanols. Consequently, silsesquioxanes can be obtained directly by condensation of the corresponding silanetriols which occurs at neutral pH and works even for sterically very bulky substituents.
8 RSi(OH)3 → [RSiO3/2]8 + 12 H2O
Depending on the R substituent, the exterior of cage can be further modified. When R = H, the Si-H group can undergo hydrosilylation or oxidation to the silanol. Bridged polysilsesquioxanes are most readily prepared from clusters that contain two or more trifunctional silyl groups attached to non-hydrolysable silicon-carbon bonds, with typical sol-gel processing. Vinyl-substituted silsesquioxanes can be linked by the alkene metathesis.
Vinyl POSS CAS: 69655-76-1 is one of silsesquioxane, attaching 8 vinyl group on its molecular sphere so that its properties and applications would be modified by reaction with other functionalized building blocks
Octa(vinylsilasesquioxane) shows very good activity due to its 8 vinyl group on its molecular sphere, which could further functionalization by reaction with other group to adjusting its activity according to its applications.
UCHEM has been supplying vinyl poss for many years, which is always availalbe from warehouse. Please contact with UCHEM if you have needs.